In conclusion, because of the small sample sizes inherently available in studies comparing behavior in wolves and dogs, it is critical that continued, standardized studies on wolf dog comparisons are encouraged to further uncover the resolution in behavioral variation during domestication. CH and HT designed the study.
CH conducted the experiments and prepared data for analyses. All authors reviewed the manuscript prior to submission. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. This manuscript has been released as a preprint on BioRxiv Hansen Wheat et al. Video S2. Bates, D. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Belyaev, D. Domestication in the silver fox Vulpes Fulvus Desm : changes in physiological boundaries of the sensitive period of primary socialization.
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R package version 1. Ley, J. Assessing fear of novel and startling stimuli in domestic dogs. Lindblad-Toh, K. Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog. Nature , — Lord, K. A comparison of the sensory development of wolves Canis lupus lupus and dogs Canis lupus familiaris. Ethology , — Mainwaring, M.